The school leader, showing dedicated interest in what happens in the class itself, is much appreciated. No doubt, teachers find it highly motivating when the principal provides a variety of support, including practical assistance and encouragement Murphy, This involves frequent movement through the school, class visits as well as some informal exchange with the teaching staff Teddlie et al. Davis et al. Being in charge of the school administration, school leaders have the greatest share in motivating teachers.
According to Griffin , relationships with administrators were rated as a highly motivating factor. This is supported by Asbill and Gonzalez who found a relationship between positive principal-teacher interactions and teacher job satisfaction. Egley found similar results and emphasized the importance of a supportive principal-teacher relationship. School leaders Barnett and McCormick, must be able to create an environment conducive to the building of positivity, providing the platform for the staff to maintain good relations, so as to create a healthy environment, where all can grow adequately.
Wallace further claimed that school leadership should also include some emotional dimension. She posited that school leaders who understand the emotional context in which they work will provide a more satisfying and effective work context for teachers.
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They highlighted that working in a classroom environment where there is administrative support enhances the element of respect. Indeed, interviews by Sederberg and Clark showed that teachers perceive respect as the most important incentive, followed by trust, optimism and intentionality. Further research Geisel et al. Lashway added that school principals should ensure that this vision is relevant to the school context.
In addition, it must be focused, consistent, at the same time, including short term as well as long term objectives Geisel et al.
Importance and Issues of Literature Review in Research
These help define and promote high expectations; and they connect directly with teachers and the classroom. This is because vision provides personal goals for the teacher, a desire to see a change in the future. The staff should be able to connect to the vision when it is clearly defined, so that, their own personal objectives may sprout out from it. Their studies have shown that teachers are highly motivated when they build consensus on the aims and values of the school.
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In such cases, teachers can put these into practice through collaborative and consistent of working. Empirical evidence Leithwood and Riehl, ; Ylimaki, proved that vision creates a sense of purpose that binds teachers together and propels them to fulfill their deepest aspirations and to reach ambitious goals.
Other researchers Lee and Smith, analyzed performance from secondary schools and found that coherent, sustained, and focused reforms resulted in the best outcomes for students. Therefore, effective professional principals Huber, , should relentlessly work to improve achievement by focusing on defining SMART goals. However, scholars Gagne and Deci, ; Sheldon, Turban, Brown, Barrick and Judge, claimed that presenting followers with a value-laden vision is not enough.
No doubt, implementing a vision is not instantaneous; it requires repeated cycles of reflection, evaluation, and response, and only the principal can sustain it Lashway, Sheldon et al. Thus, principals need to wear many different hats during the school day. But, the most effective school principals are not only managers and disciplinarians but also instructional leaders for the school Leithwood and Mascall, Their studies showed that an effective school leader is not merely a good administrator or manager, but also a leading professional- a transformational leader.
According to Burns transformational leadership is the process in which leaders and their followers bring each other to a higher level of ethic and motivation. Leithwood claimed that transformational leadership is, actually, the restructuring of the system in order for the mission and vision of people to be redefined.
It also ensures that the staff identifies themselves with the goals of the organisation, together with enlisting the participation of the staffs by taking into consideration their opinion greatly provide the scope for motivation. Bass suggested that motivation is, in fact, a sub-dimension of transformational leadership.
Other scholars Simola, Barling and Turner, ; Park and Rainey, also concluded that motivation has been shown to be an inspiring component of such kind of leadership and these have shown a positive relationship between transformational leadership and motivation.
Indeed, Bass and Avolio have argued that transformational leadership can produce extraordinary outcomes in terms of increased commitment to achieving group or organisational goals. Coupled with the above, Shamir, House and Arthur , maintained that transformational leaders also foster intrinsic motivations related to self concept. Research has shown a positive relationship between transformational leadership and motivation. It has been proved that in an organisation with transformational leaders, there is higher productivity and that the employees are happier and there are fewer negative incidents Robbins, Indeed, transformational Leadership plays an important role in developing self-motivation.
As the human relations and communicative skills of a transformational leader are developed, they are effective in persuading and directing their followers Glad and Blanton, They also motivate followers to transcend their own immediate self-interest for the sake of the mission and vision of the organisation. Such total engagement emotional, intellectual and moral encourages followers to develop and perform beyond expectations Bass, ; Burns, This not only allows the transformational leader to operate effectively within the available context, but to change it, to make it more receptive to her or his own leadership orientation.
Indeed, a positive relationship has been found Howell and Hall- Merenda, between transformational leadership and a good rapport between the leader and follower. Applying this to schools, Avolio and Bass argue that although transactional and transformational leadership can represent two discrete forms of leadership, effective school principals exhibit characteristics of both by maintaining short-term endeavors through transactional leadership and by inciting change as a transformational leader.
The challenges brought to schools by restructuring have been cited as reasons for advocating transformational leadership in schools. Such leadership embraces a postmodern way of thinking. It is argued that transformational leadership is well suited to the challenges of current school restructuring. It has the potential for building high levels of commitment in teachers to the complex and uncertain nature of the school reform agenda and for fostering growth in the capacities teachers must develop to respond positively to this agenda Leithwood and Jantzi, Transformational leadership is seen to be sensitive to organisation building, developing shared vision, distributing leadership and building school culture necessary to current restructuring efforts in schools Leithwood, Jantzi and Stainbach, Leithwood and Jantzi have defined transformational leadership based on schools.
If you are writing the literature review as part of your dissertation or thesis, reiterate your central problem or research question and give a brief summary of the scholarly context. If you are writing a stand-alone paper, give some background on the topic and its importance, discuss the scope of the literature you will review for example, the time period of your sources , and state your objective.
The Importance of Literature Review in Research Writing
What new insight will you draw from the literature? Depending on the length of your literature review, you might want to divide the body into subsections. You can use a subheading for each theme, time period, or methodological approach. The example below is taken from the body of a literature review on the relationship between national identity and nature conservation. This paragraph discusses how humanities scholars have approached the concept of wilderness.
Following Cronon, the racial and class politics of wilderness preservation was a theme taken up by several scholars in the late s and early s, who researched the material effects of conservation politics on indigenous and rural Americans Catton ; Spence ; Jacoby The US National Park system became the dominant paradigm for analyzing relations between conservation, nationhood and nationalism. Recent work has begun to challenge this paradigm and argue for more varied approaches to understanding the socio-political relations between nation and nature.
The example combines the thematic and chronological approaches. This section of the literature review focuses on the theme of wilderness, while the paragraph itself is organized chronologically. In the conclusion, you should summarize the key findings you have taken from the literature and emphasize their significance. If the literature review is part of your thesis or dissertation, show how your research addresses gaps and contributes new knowledge, or discuss how you have drawn on existing theories and methods to build a framework for your research.
If you are writing a stand-alone paper, you can discuss the overall implications of the literature or make suggestions for future research based on the gaps you have identified.
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Our quick guide to proofreading offers some useful tips and tricks! It's clear, to the point and beautiful source of knowledge. But i want to further more about the thematic review - its meaning and the process of way of dong it. Wonderful indeed! Time saving and to the point. No complexity but simplicity. Highly thankful! Thanks, I find this information very helpful to to my academic works in research and writing as whole. It is my hope that you give a clear sample formats so as understand the step by step concept. Once more thanks.
Hi Lucy, Somebody ask me "what shaped or guided your literature review LR? Is my answer sufficient? Can you kindly give your comment please. Thank you. I've read nearly your whole website, it's brilliant! Regarding LR, I would like to suggest one thing I have myself been advised to use by a friend: mindmaps. There are a couple of free apps such as XMind which I loooove that saved my life and eased my work so much while typing my LR. It helps you structure your articles by topic for example, I put my references and summed up each relevant article in a topic.
This made it sooo much easier to organise my work, my ideas, my structure and my writing because all I had to do was to go back on my map instead of going back to the articles. Hi Mohamed, Thank you for your question. Unfortunately we can't help you with this question, as it is too specific. Sorry about that! Kind regards, Lucy. Have a language expert improve your writing. To demonstrate knowledge of available sources 4. To identify gaps in theories 5. To check consistency and continuity of existing studies and their results M S Sridhar7 Literature Review 8.
Literature Review Tutorial: Why do a lit review?
Purposes of Literature Review 6. Enables to delimit the scope and to narrow down the research problem 7. To ascertain availability of expected data and techniques for research problem 8. To avoid duplication of work To learn from earlier endeavours, i.